JAPANESE AUXILIARY VERBS

Definition: All auxiliary verbs in Japanese attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, the auxiliars verbs are different to normal verbs in having no independent meaning as a normal verb. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs.

Pure auxiliaries - 助動詞 - jodōshi

These auxiliaries Verbs cannot possibly function as an independent verb.

Auxiliar Example
ます (masu) 書く (kaku, to write) → 書きます(kakimasu)
られる(rareru) 見る (miru, to see) → 見られる (mirareru, to be able to see)

増える (fueru, to increae) → 増えられる (fuerareru, to have the ability to increase)
(ru) 飲む (nomu, to drink/swallow) → 飲め (nomeru, to be able to drink)
させる (saseru) 考える (kangaeru, to think) → 考えさせる (kangaesaseru, to cause to think)
せる (seru) 思い知る (omoishiru, to realize) → 思い知らせる (omoishiraseru, to cause to realize/to teach a lesson)


Helper auxiliaries - 補助動詞 - hododōshi

These are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.

Auxiliar Example
ある (aru, to be (inanimate)) 開く (aku, to open) → 開いてある (aite-aru, opened and is still open)
いる (iru, to be(animate)) 寝る (neru, to sleep) → 寝ている (nete-iru, is sleeping)
いく (iku, to go) 歩く (aruku, to walk) → 歩いていく (aruite-iku, keep walking)
くる (kuru, to come) なる (naru, become) → なってくる (natte-kuru, start becoming)
始める (hajimeru, to begin) 書く (kaku, to write) → 書き始める (kaki-hajimeru, start to write)
出す (dasu, to emit) 輝く (kagayaku, to shine) → 輝き出す (kagayaki-dasu, to start shining)
みる (miru, to see) する (suru, do) → してみたい (shite-mitai, try to do)
なおす (naosu, to correct/heal) 書く (kaku, to write) → 書きなおす (kaki-naosu, rewrite)
あがる (agaru, to rise) 立つ (tatsu, to stand) → 立ち上がる (tachi-agaru, stand up)

出来る (dekiru, to come out) → 出来上がる (deki-agaru, be completed)
得る (eru/uru, to be able) ある (aru, to be) → あり得る (arieru, is possible)
かかる (kakaru, to hang/catch/obtain) 溺れる (oboreru, drown) → 溺れかかる (obore-kakaru, about to drown)
きる (kiru, to cut) 食べる (taberu, to eat) → 食べきる (tabe-kiru, to eat it all)
消す (kesu, to erase) 揉む (momu, to rub) → 揉み消す (momi-kesu, to rub out, to extinguish)
込む (komu, to enter deeply/plunge) 話す (hanasu, to speak) → 話し込む (hanashi-komu, to be deep in conversation)
下げる (sageru, to lower) 引く (hiku, to pull) → 引き下げる (hiki-sageru, to pull down)
過ぎる (sugiru, to exceed) 言う (iu, to say) → 言いすぎる (ii-sugiru, to say too much, to overstate)
付ける (tsukeru, to attach) 行く (iku, to go) → 行き付ける (iki-tsukeru, be used to (going))
続ける (tsuzukeru, to continue) 降る (furu, to fall (eg. rain)) → 降り続ける (furi-tsuzukeru, to keep falling)
通す (tōsu, to show/thread/lead) 読む (yomu, to read) → 読み通す (yomi-tōsu, to finish reading)
抜ける (nukeru, to shed/spill/desert) 走る (hashiru, to run) → 走り抜ける (hashiri-nukeru, to run through (swh))
残す (nokosu, to leave behind) 思う (omou, to think) → 思い残す (omoi-nokosu, to regret (lit: to have sth left to think about))
残る (nokoru, to be left behind) 生きる (ikiru, live) → 生き残る (iki-nokoru, to survive (lit: to be left alive))
分ける (wakeru, to divide/split/classify) 使う (tsukau, use) → 使い分ける (tsukai-wakeru, to indicate the proper way to use)
忘れる (wasureru, to forget) 聞く (kiku, to ask) → 聞き忘れる (kiki-wasureru, to forget to ask)



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